Way of the Salaf

December 7, 2008

Supplicating to Righteous Individuals

Filed under: Aqidah,Tawhid — wayofthesalaf @ 2:00 pm
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Taken from “An Explanation of Aspects of the days of Ignorance” of the Imaam and Mujaddid Muhammad Bin ‘Abdil-Wahaab[d.1206H] Explained by Shaikh Saalih bin Fawzaan al-Fawzaan

The First Aspect: Supplicating to Righteous Individuals

[1] They performed worship by mixing righteous people into their supplication and worship of Allaah. They only did this desiring that these (righteous people) act as intercessors for them before Allaah, based on their notiont hat Allaah loved this and that these righteous people loved Him. Allaah says: “And they worship besides Allaah things that harm them not nor profit them, and they say: ‘These are our intercessors with Allaah.” [Surah Yoonus:18]

And He says: “And those who take associates apart from Him (say): ‘We worship them only so that they may bring us nearer to Allaah.” [Surah az-Zumar:3]

This is the greatest of matters that the Messenger of Allah salalahu alayhi wa salam opposed them in. So he brought sincerity (i.e. doing deeds sincerely for Allaah alone and not for anyone else) and informed that it was the religion of Allah, which all the Messengers were sent with. And he informed us that no deeds are accepted (by Allaah), except those done sincerely (for Him alone). And he salalahu laayhi wa salam informed that whosoever does what these (polytheists) approved of, then Allaah has forbidden paradise for him and his final destination will be the hellfire.

It is due to this aspect that mankind becomes divided into Muslims and disbelievers. And it is due to it that enmity (between the two) occurs. ANd it is for this purpose that Jihaad was legislated, as Allaah says:

“And fight them (disbelievers) until there is no more fitnah (evil/disbelief) left, and the religion is for Allaah alone.” [Surah al-Anfaal:39]

-the Explanation-

Allaah says: 

“And I did not create the Jinn and mankind except that they should worship Me.” [Surah adh-Dhaariyaat:56]

Worship is the right of Allaah – It is not permissible that someone else be worshipped along with Him regardless of who it may be. However, the people of the Days of Ignorance did the opposite of this, for they abandoned worshipping Allaah, which was the reason why they were created. Instead of worshpping Allaah, they worshipped statues, trees, rocks, jinn, angels, “saints”, and righteous people. So they directed their worship to otehr than Allaah. Among them were those who did not worship Allaah at all. These were the disbelievers, such as the athiests and the Dahriyyah. And among them were those who worshipped Allaah as well as other gods along with Him. But the ruling with regard to both of these types is one and the same. The one who worships others along with Allaah is just like one who doesnt worship Allaah at all. This is since his worship is in vain. Allaah is not pleased with Shirk (associating partners in worship with Him). Likewise, the deed must be in accordance with what Allaah has legislated. So Allah do not accept the  deed that has innovation in it, just as He does not accept the deed that has polytheism in it. So the greatest aspect of the Days of Ignorance was Associating partners in worship with Allaah and innovating into the Religion.

The author, may Allaah have mercy on him, began with this aspect since it was the most dangerous characteristic of the people of the Days of Ignorance. ANd it is also because it was the first thing that the Messenger of Allaah salalahu alayhi wa salam began with-rejecting it and calling the people to abandon it. So the first thing the Messenger of Allaah salalahu alayhi wa salam began with-as did all of the other prophets0 was the command to make all of the worship sincerely and exclusively for Allaah alone and to abandon the worship of everything besides Him. This is the beginning of the call of the Messengers, since this is the foundation uponw hich everything else is built on. If the foundation is corrupt, there is no benefit in all of the other things that come after it-there is no benefit in the prayer, fasting, hajj, charity or any of the other forms of worship. So long as the foundation is corrupt and one is lacking Tawheed, there is no benefit in all of the other good deeds, since Shirk (associating partners in worship with Allaah) has nullified and invalidated them.

During the Days of Ignorance, the people would worship Allaah and many other things along with Him, amongst which was the worship of righteous and pious individuals, as occured with the people of Nooh (alayhi salam) when they went to extremes with regard to their righteous people- Wadd, Suwaa’, Yagooth, Ya’ooq and Nasr. They worshipped their graves apart from Allaah using the excuse that htey were righteous people and they sought nearness to Allaah through them and that they would intercede before Allaah on their behalf.

This is how the people of the Days of Ignorance gradualy began to fall into Shirk. SO they would worship the righteous and pious people as well as the angels. And they would say: “We only worship them so that they may bring us closer to Allaah.” And they would say: “They will intercede for us before Allaah.” They would not say: “They are partners in worship with Allaah.” Rather, they would say: “They are only devout worshippers of Allaah who serve as intermediaries for us before Allaah, and they will intercede on our behalf and draw us nearer to Him.” They would not call this action of theirs Shirk, since the Devil had made it appear to them that it wasn’t Shirk, but rather they would call it “seeking nearness to Allaah” through the intermediation and intercession of righteous people. Consideration is not given to names but rather to the facts. So this act of theirs is shirk even if they call it “intercession” or “nearness.” It is in fact Shirk. Using different names does not change the reality of something.

to be continued Inshaallaah


December 4, 2008

The reliance of the Traveler by Nuh keller

Filed under: Uncategorized — wayofthesalaf @ 2:13 am

 Dr. Salih as-Salih rahimahullah contributed greatly to protect the youth of this ummah from falling for the “reliance” of Nuh keller.

Here are just a brief example of nuh kellers deviancy and his straying from the right path.

First: This is a plain statement from a ‘principle’ sufi that there are members of the sufi orders to ‘whom the unseen is disclosed”!!! A reminder that Allaah said on the tongue of the Most Honourable Messenger salalahu alayhi wa salam

“Say (O muhammad salalahu alayhi wa salam) “I posses no power of benefit or hurt to myself except as Allaah will. If i had the knowledge of the Ghayb, I should have secured for myself an abundance of wealth, and no evil should have touched me. I am but a warner, and a bringer of glad tidings unto people who believe” (7:188)

The so-called ‘states’ of th esufis contrast with the state of the prophets regarding the belief in al-ghayb and its disclosure! In fact Al-Jeeli’s belief regarding the prophets in general and prophet muhammad salalahu alayhi wa salam, and the last day is stated ‘in a manner that no one with a particle of faith in his heart can accept” In his book Al-Insaan Al-Kaamil (The Perfect Man,) [Like with some of ibn arabi’s works, Al-jeeli claimed that Allaah commanded him to expose this book of kufr and heresy: Al-Insaan Al-Kaamil, 1:6]

he interpreted the saying of Allaah:

“Say (O muhammad salalahu alayhi wa salam): Huwa (He) is Allaah, (the) One,”

“Say (O muhammad salalahu alayhi wa salam) that huwa i.e man (Allaahu ahad) with the demonstrative letter (ha) in huwa refers to the subject of Say and that is you (ie muhammad salalahu alayhi wa salam)…” Accordingly this will read: “Say (O muhammad salalahu alayhi wa salam) Huwa (you) are Allaah, the One” (Al-Insaan Al-Kaamil, 1:31. See Al-Fikr As-Sufi pp243-245)

This is the philosophy of Al-Jeeli’s “Perfect Man” explicitly expressed in the title of chapter sixty of the same book:

[Regarding Al-Insaan Al-kaamil and that he is muhammad salalahu alayhi wa salam and that he corresponds to both, the truth and Creation: “Know may Allaah guard and protect you, that Al-Insaan Al-Kaamil (the perfect man) is the Qutub (the axis) around which the spheres of existence from beginning to end revolves. And he is one since the being of existence and forever and ever. Furthermore, he takes on various forms and appears in churches… his original name which belongs to him is muhammad…I met him while he was in the image of my sheikh sharaf-ud-deen Ismaa’eel Al-Jhubratee… the secret behind this matter is him being able to take the form of every image…. don’t you see him when he appeared in the image of ash shiblee (radiallahu anhu and this radiallahu anhu is from HIS WORDS) he (ash shiblee) said to his disciple, “I bear witness that I am Allaah’s Messenger.” The disciple was a man of kashf, and thus he was able to recognize him; he said, “I bear witness that you are Allaah’s Messenger…”]

He also said: “And know that Al-Insaan Al-Kaamil by himself corresponds to all of the existing realities. (Al-Insaan Al Kaamil 2:73 (see Al-Fikr As-Sufi p247 and kashf p266)

End of quote

The appendix of Nuh keller’s Reliance of the Traveler is filled with praise of some sufis and their works in which contain clear cut kufr and deviancy. Dr. salih as salih rahimahullah was keen on quoting mostly from those passages from books that Nuh Keller himself praised from the books of the Sufis that he gave bios in this deviant work (reliance of the traveler)

Here is another quick excerpt

Pages 98 of dispraise of al hawwa by dr. salih as salih

D) An Innovated Skhaathili Invocation

There is a sufi invocation which represents an intergral part of nuh ha mim keller’s shaathili order. The sufis gave it their special care and wrote some commentaries about it. It is called Salaat Ibn Basheesh (Abdus Salam ibn Masheesh (or basheesh) ibn Abee bakr, a sufi who used to live in one of the mountian caves in moroco. He died in 622/1225. Abul Hasan ash shaathili is one of his disciples)

“O Allaah! Have your salaat on the one from whom the secrets were split open and the lights were broke…Throw me into the sea of Al-Ahadiyyah,(The ahadiyyah in the mystic terminology is the absolute thaat free from the names and attributes or any of their effects. See abee khazzaam’s Mu’jam al-Al faath as sufiyyah p39 and p134. ) and lift me from the mud of tawheed, and drown me in the essence of the sea of Al-Wahdah (unity)… (In Annafha Al-Aliyya fee Awraad ash-Shaathiliyyah p16 Al-Maktabah aslh slha’biyyah, beirut lebanon, See also Dalaa’il Al-Khairaat, p233 by muhammad bin suleimaan al-Jazwali, a reference book known to many sufis, if not all. Qouted in kashf p141, 248-249 and p 256)

End of quote. Is this the way of the people of the Sunnah? Tell me which of the Sahabah radiallahu anhum and the Salaf in the totality have spoken about this wahdiyyah and ahadiyah. How very deceptive our brother abul layth is when recommending the works of a deviant. Notice Nuh HA MIM Keller. His name contains the letters Haa and Meem from the arabic alphabet yet this means absolutely nothing. But to the Shadhiliyah and other sufis it is very significant because of the mystical “secret” behind it. Unfortunately the talk of all these mystic letters and discussions on ahadiyah and wahdat al wujud were not discussed by the Nabi salalahu alayhi wa salam nor of the Sahabah radiallahu anhum so one may question the truthfulness of these “moderate” “Sunnah-based” sufis.

Nuh Keller also praised a work of al-Kurdi a naqshbandi whom he praises much in the appendix of “Reliance of the Traveler” the same section that Abul layth says

Take a look at a quote taken from this work

Dispraise of al hawwa prepaired by dr. salih as salih page 124

Muhammad Ameen Al-Kurdi said: “Some of the sheikhs (i.e. from the sufis) said, ‘Allaah assigns to the grave of the Waliy (sufi saint) an angel to carry out the requests (i.e. of those who call upon the dead). Sometimes the waliy gets out from his grave and fulfills the needs by himself.” (An-Naqshbandiyyah p55 qouting Tanweer Al-Quloob p534)

After that our Dr. Salih as salih rahimahullah says:

Continuing from page 124

The above statements of shirk (and others below) by al-kurdi are found in his book Tanweer Al-Quloob Fee mu’aamalat Allaam Al-Ghuyoob (also in his other book Al-Mawaahib as-Sarmadiyyah.) The translation of the meanin gof the book’s title as nuh ha mim keller puts it is “The enlightenment of hearts: on one’s dealing with the Knower of the Unseen.” He also added that al-kurdi “studied sacred law and other subjects at al-azhar, an education he turned to good account in his Tanwir al-quloob fi mu’amala Allaam al-Ghuyoub”

Comment: Shirk is made an enlightenment to the heart! We seek refuge with Allaah from the ways of deviation.

End of quote. The reader should truely reflect and contemplate on what is real and what is of deviation from the right path. Can we truely trust abul Layth and Nuh Keller and the other amongst there cliques such as gf haddad and abu hamid?

If you want to read up more about Nuh Ha Mim Keller and his praising of deviant individuals check this link


November 1, 2008

Falsehood of Tafweed al-Manawiyah

Filed under: Aqidah — wayofthesalaf @ 12:13 pm
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To Believe In the meanings and Rulings Indicated by the Texts of the Names and Attributes


Thus, the Salaf believe in the Names and Attributes of Allah and in the meanings and rulings indicated by them, as for their true nature, they entrust this knowledge to Allah.


They are free of what the Mu’attilah accused them of; they alleged taht the Salaf believe in the words of the texts concerning the Names and Attributes but that they entrust the knowledge of their meanings to Allah.


This claim is ignorance of the Salaf, for they possessed the greatest understanding and contemplation of the ayat of the Book and the ahadith of the Prophet salalahu alayhi wa salam, especially with respect to the knowledge of Allah (Ta’ala)

They understood the meaning of what they read and of the knowledge they possessed, but they did not concern themselves with the ghayb, which is barred from them. They did not delve into the nature of the Attributes, which was the case of the people of Kalam and innovations.


As a result, when these people did delve into the issue of the essence of Allah and His Attributes, they committed ta’wil and ta’til. The reason which caused them to do so was the constriction that they felt as a result of tashbih. They sought to flee from it and thus, ended up committing ta’til. Ta’til has always been committed as a result of tashbih.


If only they had initially exalted Allah above any similarity to His creation and affirmed the Attributes whilst negating any likeness, they would have escaped and succeeded as well as agreed with the belief of th Salaf and come to realize that the Salaf were not (mere) carriers of scrolls the contents of which they did not understand.

One who contemplates the statements of the famous Imams of the Salaf in this realm will realise that they ahd the most precise insight and were the most knowledgable in this area, and that those who opposed them did not understand the reality of the statements of the Salaf and the Imams. This is why those who differed (from them) became rivals to each other with regard to the Book and stood in opposition to the Book.


Allah (ta’ala) has said:


“And verily, those who disputed in the book are far away in opposition.
 (Surah al-Baqarah 2:176) [Dar’ al-Ta’arud al-‘Aql wa al-Naql, 2/301]


Anyonewho has read the statements of the Salaf that are recorded in the books of belief, tafsir and hadith concerning discussing the texts that mention the Attributes, will know that the Salaf discussed the meanings of the Attributes, explained them and did not remain silent about them. These statements stand as the greatest testimony to the understanding of the Salaf ont he meaning of the Attributes and to their belief in them.


Taken from “Tawhid of Allah’s Most Beautiful Names and Lofty Attributes” By Muhammad Ibn Khalifah al-Tamimi [Al=Hidaayah Publishing and Distribution]

October 10, 2008

Accept the Reports As They Are

Filed under: Aqidah — wayofthesalaf @ 2:19 pm
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Taken from (The Creed of the Pious Predecessors-The People of Hadeeth) by The Great Imaam Aboo ‘Uthmaan Ismaa’eel ibn ‘Abdur-Rahmaan As-Saaboonee (rahimahullah) [Masjid Ibnu Taymeeyah Publication]

Chapter 7

The Position of the Salaf (Regarding These Narrations)

72. Yazeed ibn Haroon related in a meeting a hadeeth of Ismaa’eel ibn Abee Khaalid, from Qais ibn Abee Haazim, from Jareer ibn ‘Abdullah, that the Messenger of Allah salalahu alayhi wa salam said:

“Indeed you will see your Lord, like you see the full moon.” [Related by Ibn Khuzaimah in Kitaab ut-Tawheed 1:407-411]

So a man in the meeting said to him: ‘O Aboo Khaalid, what is the meaning of this hadeeth?’ He in reply got angry and said:

“How great is your resemblance to Sabeegh and how great is your need for that which was done to him. Woe be to you, and who knows how it will be? For who is it permissible to transgress this statement which the Hadeeth came with or to speak about it from one’s own desires, unless it be the one who ridicules himself and belitles his religion. Whenever you hear a hadeeth from the Messenger of Allah (salalahu alayhi wa salam), follow it and do not innovate in it. Indeed if you follow it and do not dispute about it, you will be saved. If not you will be destroyed.”

73 The story of Sabeegh which Yazeed ibn Haaroon referred to when he said:

“How great is your resemblance to Sabeegh and how great is your need for that which was done to him.”

It is related by Yahya ibn Sa’eed from Sa’eed ibn al-Musayyab: That Sabeegh at-Tameemee came to the chief of believers, ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab radiallahu anhu, and said: ‘O chief of the believers, tell me about the verse:

“The Dhaariyaat that scatter dust”

He replied: “It is the winds and if I had not heard the Messenger of Allah salalahu alayhi salam say so, I would not have said it.” Sabeegh said:

‘So tell me about the verse:

“And they bear the heavey weight of water”

He replied: “It means the clouds, and If I had not heard the Messenger of Allah salalahu alayhi wa salam say so, I would not have said it.” Sabeegh said:

“So tell me about the verse:
“And those who distribute by command.”

He replied: “It means the Angels, and If I had not heard the Messenger of Allah salalahu alayhi wa salam, say so, I would not have said it.” Sabeegh said:

“So tell me about the verse:

“And those which float with ease”

He replied:
“It means the ships, and If I ha dnot heard the Messenger of Allah salalahu alayhi wa salam say so, I would not have said it.”

Then ‘Umar (radiallahu anhu) ordered the man to be whipped one hundred times. Then he was confined to a room. When he had recovered, he was called for and he was whipped again one hundred times until he was carried away on a saddle. Then ‘Umar wrote to Aboo Moosa al-Ash’aree (radiallahu anhu) stating that he, (Sabeegh) was to be prevented from attending the meetings of the people. That remained the case, until Sabeegh came to Aboo Moosa and swore that there was not anything in him now from what was in himbefore. So Aboo Moosa wrote to Umar, who replied: I think that he has indeed spoken the truth so let him with with the people.
[Related by al-Bazzaar 299, Ibn Katheer in his Tafseer 7:390 and Ibh Hajar in al-Isaabah 2:199. Al-Aajuree says in ash-Sharee’ah p.74 “The man was whipped because he used to seek the interpretation of the unclear verses of the Quraan (the mutashaabih) and he used to busy himself with knowledge which was not beneficial.” )

Striving Against the Evil Inclinations of the Soul

Filed under: Tazkiyah an-Nafs — wayofthesalaf @ 12:57 pm
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Taken from (Purification of the Soul, Concept, Process, and Means) by Jamal ad-din Zarabozo

Striving Against Any Evil Inclinations of the Soul

Allah says,

“And strive for the sake of Allah as you ought to strive” (al-hajj 78)

Al-Raazi has quoted the great mujaahid and scholar Abdullah ibn al-Mubaraak as interpreting, “strive as you ought to strive” as meaning, “Struggling against the soul and desires.” [Al-Raazi, vol.23 pg. 72]

The Messenger of Allah (salalahu alayhi wa salam) said,

“The [true] Mujaahid is the one who strives against his own soul.” [recorded by al-Tirmidhi and ibn Hibaan. According to al-albaani, it is sahih]

As was noted earlier, the soul is not necessarily inherently evil. However, the soul has both propensities in it: it can turn toward good and it can turn toward evil. Hence, the individual has to work to extinguish or greatly weaken the evil propensities. This is a type of struggle and, hence, it is a kind of jihad.
In fact, there are various types of jihad. Unfortunately, many times people go to extremes by stressing one at the expense of the others. For example, there are many in this wold today, given the current plight of muslims, who stress jihad against the disbelievers. At the same time, they fail to recognize the importance of jihad against any evil inclinations in the soul, which probably lie at the root of the matter leading to the current plight of the muslims. On the other hand, some stress jihad against the soul and ignore, downplay or deny the validity of any other form of jihad.

Although both of these extremes are to be avoided, the overall importance of “victory” in the jihad against the soul needs to be emphasized. When one encounters the enemies on the physical battlefield, the most that can happen to a person is that he loses his life. His enemy cannot pry the faith from the believer’s heart. His enemy can only put an end to the believer’s worldly life. But if the believer loses his life while having faith and fighting for the sake of Allah, that is not a ba dthing whatsoever. His worldly life may come to an end but he has gained an everlasting victory of happiness. On the other hand, if the believer loses in the battle against evil inclinations in one’s soul, he will harm his own soul. In fact, if he does not strive against any of the evil inclinations in his soul, the result can be everlasting misery and punishment in the hereafter. In other words, instead of purifying his osul, his soul will be completely soiled and corrupted, leading to Allah’s displeasure.

In essence, what is meant by “Jihad against any evil inclination in the soul” is that sometimes the soul may desire or long after something that is harmful for the soul itself. Allah has described this occurence in a couple places in the Quran. For example, concerning the son of Adam (alayhi salam) who killed his brother and was the first to commit murder, Allah says,

“The (selfish) soul of the other led him to the murder of his brother: he murdered him, and became (himself) one of the lost ones” (al-Maaidah 30).

Allah also clearly points out the importance of forbidding one’s soul from following such vain desires when they occur. For example, Allah says,

“And for such as had entertained the fear of standing before their Lord’s (tribunal) and had restrained (their) soul from lower desires, their abode will be the Garden” (al-Naaziaat 40-41)

Ibn Hazm once stated a very precise golden rule concerning this matter. he said, “There are two things that if you do them you will attain the good of this world and the hereafter…[They are] that you bear what you dislike if it is beloved to Allah and you leave what you like if it is disliked by Allah.” [Quoted in al-Bilaali, p128-129]

Not always, especially as one is beginning along the path of purification are the acts of worship pleasing and easy upon the soul. Similarly, refraining from what Allah dislikes may also not be that easy in the early stages of one’s spiritual growth. However, the person must always keep in mind that the key to his purification and the key to his reaching his goal is to do what is pleasing to Allah and to refrain from what is displeasing to Allah, regardless of whether the soul is ready and easily accepted of that.

Therefore, whenever one’s soul prompts a muslim to perform an evil deed, he should first recognize in his mind that such is an evil deed. Unfortunately, though, when an inclination to sin exists in the soul, satan will try to pounce on this opportunity to urge the person to perform that harmful act. If the person has evil friends, they may also encourage him to do such evil. Now the individual himsel fmust decide what to do. He has contradictory pressures within his own being. He may give in to his soul’s temporary lust and longing and do something that he knows is not correct and not beneficial. On the other hand, he may strive against this feeling or lust. He may restrain himself, correctly convincing himself that to forego that at is better than to perform it. This restraint is a type of patience and striving, patience in the face of what the soul is longing for and striving against its harmful demands.

But there is more to it than refraining oneself from chasing after lusts and desires. One also has to “move” one’s soul and oneself. That is, one has to strive against being complacent and lazy. Today, no specific individual has a guarantee of paradise. Hence, every individual should fear that he could lose whatever good he has attained and could even lose his faith altogether. Therefore, he must always strive to maintain his faith, improve himself, and perform as many good deeds as he can. In fact, he should not even be content if he remains stationary. He should hope for improvement in every day of his life. In fact, the early scholars Sulaimaan al-Daaraani stated, “If a person’s day is just like yesterday, then he has a shortcoming.” [Quoted in al–Bilaali p.64]

In particular, he must push himself to perofrm the obligatory duties, from the prayer five times a day to the obligations he has towards all others. Given all the tempatations, constraints and struggles a person faces, this is indeed a true form of striving in every sense of the word. The individual cannot afford to be lackadaisical since he never knows when the angel of death may come to him.

The main weapon in this battle is patience. Patience has many aspects to it. Patience has been defined by ibn al-Qayyim as, “confirming the demands of the [intellegent and rational] mind and faith against the urges of desires and lusts.” [Ibn Qayyim in Iddah al-Saabireen wa Dhakheerah al-Shakireen: Beirut Daar al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah 1983, p.16]

One of the most important forms of patience is the patience and perseverance that is required on a daily basis to make onself perform the obligatory duties. It also includes patience in the sense of restraining oneself from committing sinful acts. Hence, the quality of patience is definitely a must for the purified soul. Indeed, it is one of the true signs of a purified soul and it is one of the aspects concerning which Allah tests mankind. Allah has said,

“We shall try you until We show who are the mujahideen among you and who are the patient. And We shall test your facts [to display your true nature]” (Muhammad 31)

In fact, one of the greatest benefits of jihad is that it is both an act of patience as well as an act that devlops further patience. The Prophet (salalahu alayhi wa salam) has stated,

“The hell-fire has been covered in lusts while paradise is covered in hardships.” [Recorded by al-Bukhari]. Paradise is not obtained simply through play, rest and relaxation while merely stating with one’s tongue that one is a believer. Indeed, when one claims to be a believer, Allah will put that person to the test to demonstrate, prove and increase his faith. Allah says,

“Do men think that they will be left alone on saying, ‘We believe’ and that they will not be tested? We did test those before them and Allah will certainly know those who are true from those who are false” (al-ankaboot 2-3)

The demonstration of one’s faith and its increase is achieved through sacrifice, patience and jihad.

A very important aspect int he jihad against the evil inclinations of the soul is the repelling of nay evil thought that pop into one’s mind. Evil ideas occur to everybody. The important thing is to stamp them out as soon as they appear and not to allow them to grow and flourish until the person himself begins to desire or intend to do that evil act. When caught in their early moments, there is no sin upon the person for what occured in his mind. A hadith, recorded by al-Bukhari and Muslim, states,

“Verily, Allah has overlooked for [the members of] my nation what their souls think about as long as they do not act on it or speak about it.”

As one allows the evil thoughts to persist, the stronger they become and more difficult they are to overcome and defeat. If the individual allows them to grow until they become true wants and intentions, then he may commit a sin depending upon the entire situation and what he does afterwards.

An additional aid in struggling against the soul is to specifically seek refuge with Allah from any evil inclination in the soul. Actually, the believer should do this every morning, every evening and upon going to bed. The Prophet (salalahu alayhi wa salam) told his dear Companion Abu Bakr (radiallahu anhu)

“Say: O Allah, creator of the heavens and earth, knower of the unseen and seen, Lord of everything and its Sovereign, I bear witness that there is none worthy of worship except You. I seek refuge in You from the evil in my soul and from the evil of Satan and his ascribing of partners to Allah. [I also seek refuge from] acquiring any evil for myself or bringing such upon any Muslim.”

Then the Prophet (salalahu alayhi wa salam) said, “Say that when you are in the early morning, late afternoon and when you take to your bed.” [recorded by Ahmad and Abu Dawood. According to al-Hilaali, this hadith is sahih]

As noted earlier, the soul is not necessarily inherently evil, although some writers may give that impression. Dealing with the soul is a case of developing its natural good qualities and suppressing any evil qualities that may have crept into it. This strugggle with the soul is not an impossible task. It is something that Allah requires from every human and it is well within the means of every human if he so chooses that path. The following verse makes it clear that this obligation-this struggle against the soul which is so often pictured or conceived of as some insurmountable task-is within the means of mankind without even an unbearable hardship. Allah has said,

“And strive in His cause as you ought to strive. He has chosen you, and has imposed no difficulties on you in religion” (al-Hajj 78)

Perhaps one of the greatest foundations that can assist one in striving against any evil desires or inclinations in his soul is having a noble and supreme purpose. That is, if one keeps in mind his goal in life, setting that goal in front of him, he will recognize those acts that veer him away from that goal. He will realize what is more important and he will in most cases-Allah willing-not give in to any temporary temptations.

The True Nature of Worldly Existence

Filed under: Tazkiyah an-Nafs — wayofthesalaf @ 11:59 am
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From (Purification of the Soul: Concept, Process, and Means by Jamal ad-Din Zarabozo)

Realizing the True Nature of This Worldly Existence
One of the greatest realizations that come from studing teh Quran as well as personal contemplation and reflection concerns the fleeting nature of this life. There is no escaping the fact that everyone shall taste death. It is inevitable. And when it comes, one has to leave behind all of the material goods and wealth of this transient existence.

This worldly life is referred to in Arabic as al-hayaat al-dunyaa. Linguistically, dunya comes from a root meaning both closeness and something despicable or lowly. This world is called dunya for two reasons: First, at the present time, it is closer (adna) to the humans than the Hereafter. Second, it is despicable or abased (daneeah) in comparison to the hereafter. [Muhammad ibn Uthaymeen, Sharh Riyaadh al-Saaliheen: Riyadh Daar al-Watn 1995 vol6 pg6-7]

It is only those who are deceived by the glitter they see around them who become engrossed in this world and desire it till their deaths. When a person realizes the true nature of this world, as taught in the Quran and Sunnah, it becomes very easy for him to become “detached” from this world and to deal with it in the proper way.

The importance of this “Detachment” can be seen in the numerous verses of the Quran in which Allah explains to mankind the reality of this worldly life and warns them about being overcome by glitter. Note the following verses:

“Know that the life of this world is but amusement and diversion and adornment and boasting to one another and competition in increase of wealth and children. [In reality, it is] like the example of rain whose [resulting] plant growth pleases the disbelivers. When it dries, you see it turn yellow, and then it becomes [scattered] debris. And in the hereafter is severe punishment and forgiveness from Allah and approval. And what is the worldly life except the enjoyment of delusion” (al-Hadeed 20).

The fleetin pleasure and diversions of this worldly life mean nothing when one realizes that in the end it is with Allah wherein lies one’s punishment or reward. That final return is the reality of utmost importance.

“And the worldly life is not but amusement and diversion. But the home of the hereafter is best for those who fear Allah. So will you not then reason?” (al-Anaam 32).

“And this wolrdly life is not but diversion and amusement. And, indeed, the home of the hereafter, that is the [true and eternal] life, if only they knew” (al-Ankaboot 64)

“And present to them the example of the life of this wolrd: [It is] like rain which We send down from the sky, and the vegetation of the earth mingles with it and [then] it becomes dry remnants, scattered by the winds. And Allah is ever perfect in ability over all things. Wealth and children are [but] ardornment of the worldly life. But the enduring good deeds are better with your Lord and better for [one’s] hope” (al-Kahf 45-46)

The Prophet (Salalahu alayhi wa salam) also give clear warnings and lessons concerning this worldly . For example, Muslim records a hadith that states that the Prophet (salalahu alayhi wa salam) passed by a dead goat which had either very small ears or mutilated ears. The Prophet (salalahu alayhi wa salam) took it and said to his Companions, “Which of you would like to have this for one dirham?” They said, “We do not desire it. What would we use it for?” The Prophet (salalahu alayhi wa salam) again said, “Would you like to have it for your own [free]?” They said, “By Allah, even if it were alive, we would find it defective, since it has small ears; what do you think now that it is dead?” The Messenger of Allah (salalahu alayhi wa salam) thentold them,

“By Allah, the world is more insignificant to Allah than this [dead goat] is to you”

In another hadith, the Messenger of Allah (salalahu alayhi wa salam) said,

“If this wolrdly life were equivalent in Allah’s sight to even a wing of a mosquito, He would not have given a disbeliever even a drink of water in it.” [Recorded by al-Tirmidhi and others. According to Al-albaani it is sahih]

An unbeliever is an enemy to Allah and the enemy should not be given anything of real value. But the unbeliever is given plenty of this world, implying that a world void of faith and good deeds is of no real value whatsoever.

In another hadith, the Messenger of Allah (salalahu alayhi wa salam) made it very clear what of this world has any true meaning and importance to it. He stated,

“Certainly, this world is accursed and everything in it is accursed save for the remembrance of Allah, what He likes, the scholar and the student.” [Recorded by al-Tirmidhi and ibn Majah. According to al-albaani it is hasan]

Even though this is what the Quran and what the Prophet (salalahu alayhi wa salam) say about the goods of this worldly life, it is these things that play a strong role in most people’s lives. For many people, their goals are almost completely limited to the thing of this life and they can hardly raise their vision above them to consider the work for the hereafter instead.

It is not a coincidence that some of the most moving early verses of the Quran were reminders of how people are with respect to this world. The disbelievers at the time of the Prophet (salalahu alayhi wa salam) were preoccupied with worldly things like the people today. Hence, Allah said to them,

“The mutual rivalry for piling up (the good things of this world) diverts you (from the mroe serious things), until you visit the graves” (al-Takaathur 1-2) Allah also said,

“Woe to every (kind of) scandal-monger and backbiter, who piles up wealth and (continuously) counts it, thinking that his wealth would make him last for ever” (al-Humazah 1-3)

However, Allah reminds everyone,

“What is with you must vanish: what is with Allah will endure” (al-Nahl 96). When one considers the true nature of this passing world, as is pointed out in this verse, one is automatically reminded of death and what he has prepared for the hereafter. Karszoon noted that the mroe one gets engrossed in this world and mroe one has wealth, influence and power, the more he is in need of remembering death even more in order that this world not become a great trial for him that he cannot overcome. [Karzoon, vol.1 p463]
In fact, the Messenger of Allah (salalahu alayhi wa salam) put everything in a stark and clear perspective when he stated,

“The food of humans strikes a parable of this wolrdly life: From what comes out of humans [as waste], even after they had seasoned it and added salt to it [and made it very tasty], look at what it ends up as.” [Recorded by ibn Hibbaan. According to Al-albaani it is hasan]
In other words, even though humans work very hard to make the food taste excellent, the food finally results in something that is very disgusting and distasteful. The same thing is true for this world and all of its glitter. It will all end in destruction and waste. [al-Ramli, Mathal p.42-43]

When one thinks of what occurs to him at and after death- his soul leaving his body, his body being washed by others as he has no ability to do it himself, his body being placed in a grave surrounded by worms and creatures, his wealth being distributed among others and so forth- one can recal with pity how much effort he has put into this life and how little he has earend for the hereafter. There is no question that one needs to live and work in this world but one must always keep in mind what are the long-term and true goals. One takes only what he needs from this world while working for the Hereafter. This puts everything in the proper perspective that Allah has summarized in one verse:

“But seek, with the (wealth) which Allah has bestowed on you, the home of the hereafter. But do not forget your portion in this world. Do good as Allah has been good to you, and seek not (occasions for) mischief in the land. Allah loves not those who do mischief” (al-Qasas 77).

The Prophet (Salalahu alayhi wa salam) also beautifully expressed this balance when he stated,

[b]”Be in the world as if you were a stranger or a traveler along a path.” [/B][Recorded by al-Bukhari].

October 9, 2008


Filed under: Tazkiyah an-Nafs — wayofthesalaf @ 1:22 am
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(Taken from “Purification of the Soul : Concept, Process and Means” by Jamal ad-Din Zarabozo)

Aamir ibn Abd Qais stated, “I heard more than one, two, or three of the Companions of the Prophet (salalahu alayhi wa salam) say, “The Lamp of faith or the light of the faith is al-tafakkur (contemplation and reflection)”

In the hustl and bustl of the modern world, contemplation and reflection is one important tool of purification (and an act of worship in itself) that is often neglected. Indeed, it seems as though Satan and his troops have a major plan for the humans of the Twenty-First Century: Keep them so busy and preoccupied that they have no time to reflect upon what they are truely here for, what they should be doing and what their priorities should be. Nowadays, in a world in which technology is supposed to make things easier for people, people are flooded with information, most of it useless,trivial or simply time-consuming. Furthermore, in order to keep up with the pace of life, many have to work overtime or take on two or three jobs as everything is looked upon as a necessity of life: everyone has to have a cell phone, a newspaper delivered, internet access, cable TV, at least two cars and so forth. All of these cost money and, for the majority of people, they cannot be obtained save through sweating more and more hours at work. Then when the person finally has some free time, he only has the mental and physical energy to seek entertainment, relaxation and fun. And the modern world is ready to fill that desire and need in so many various ways that once again the person feels exhaused and has no mental energy left to simply comtemplate and think. As Yassine described it, “You are scattered by a thousand preoccupations, forever distracted, often depressed, and rarely in the proper state of mind.” (Yassine, p.xxvii.)

One of the greatest blessings that Allaah has bestowed upon humans is the human mind and its ability to reflect and understand. When a person uses that mind in the proper way according to its potential he should be led directly to the truth of God’s oneness and strong desire to worship the one God. On the other hand, if a person uses his mind simply to ponder over more ways to enjoy himself in useless pursuits and lusts, he will not have benefited from this great blessing and he will have wasted something that could have greatly helped in saving his very soul. In this way, his action becomes even more foolish than those creatures that have not been granted this blessing. Hence, Allaah says,

“Many are the jinn and men We have made for Hell. They have hearts wherewith they understand not, eyes wherewith they see not, and ears wherewith they hear not. They are like cattle, nay more misguided: for they are heedless: (al-Araaf 179)

One very important type of contemplation is the reflecting on nature and this creation. In fact, there are numerous verses in the Quran in which Allah exhorts mankind to ponder over different aspects of this creation. For example, Allaah says,

“Behold! In the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the alternation of night and day, there are indeed signs for men of understanding. [Such are] those who remember Allaah, standing, sitting, and lying down on their sides, and contemplate the (wonders of) creation in the heavens and the earth, (with the thought): ‘Our Lord! Not for naught have You created (all) this! Exalted be You! Give us salvation from the penalty of the Fire” (ali-Imraan 190-191)

In this verse, Allah clearly ties contemplating the creation with remembrance of Allah and the conclusion that it is unacceptable to believe that Allah created this creation in vain and without a noble purpose. The Messenger of Allah (salalahu alayhi wasalam) would would recite these verses often late at night (as Muslim records). In fact, the Messenger of Allaah (salalahu alayhi wa salam) once said about these verses,

“Woe to the one who reads it and does not contemplate over it.” (Recorded by Ibn Hibban. Its authenticity is discussed and confirmed by al-Albaani in Muhammad Naasir al-Deen al-Albaani, Silsilat al-Ahaadeeth al-Saheehah (Damascus: al-Maktab al-Islaami, 1979), vol. 1 P. 106ff.)

Hence, the issue is not simply a matter of appreciating the beauty and excellence of the creation. This is something that even the disbelievers do. Unfortunately for them, though, as with so many aspects of this world, the disbelievers cannot seem to go beyond the “tip of the iceberg” to see the reality and importance that lies beyond it. (Fn: As Allah says about them, “They know but the outer (things) in the life of this world: but of the hereafter they are heedless.” (al-Room 7). In other words, they are heedless of what all the lessons of the different aspects of this creation point to.)

The believer, on the other hand, uses that contemplation and appreciation of creation to bring him closer to Allah, remembering Allah through all of these sights and loving Allah more due to His great ability and attributes that led to this amazing creation.

As is well known, faith increases and decreases. Every Muslim should seek those means that are helpful in increasing one’s faith. One of the greatest benefits of the proper form of contemplation is that it increases the faith in one’s heart. It increases one’s certainty that this existence difinitely has a creator-it is impossible, for example, that this creation was the result of a random collision of molecules. It also increases one’s appreciation for that Creator, as this creation has miraculous aspects in it that only the Most Wise and Powerful could have created. In fact, Allah says,

You see the mountains and think them firmly fixed: but they shall pass away as the clouds pass away. (Such is) the artistry of Allah, Who disposes of all things in perfect order. He is well acquainted with all that you do.” (al-Naml 88)

Beyond that, as one reflects upon the world around him, one also comes to the realization, udner the guidance of the Quran, that all objects, the animate beings and even inanimate, are engaged in a worship of Allah. One begins to appreciate the meaning of Allah’s words,

“The seven heavens and the earth, and all beings therein, declare His glory: there is not a thing but celebrates His praise; and yet you understand not how they declare His glory” (al-Israa 44), and,

“Do you not see that it is Allah Whose praise all beings in the heavens and on earth do celebrate, and the birds (of air) with wings outspread? Each one knows its own (mode of) prayer and praise. And Allah knows well all that they do.”

An astounding result of this realization is that when the person truely obeys Allah, he is overcome with the feeling that he and all the forces of this creation are acting as one in worshipping the one and only true God and Creator.


Filed under: Bidah — wayofthesalaf @ 12:14 am

Kitab at tawhid by shaykh salih al fawzaan hafidullah page 152

1. The celebration of the birthday of the Prophet

It is a celebration which resembles the christians’ celebration of Christ’s birth (Christmas). Ignorant muslims and deviant scholars celebrate in the month of Rabi Al-Awwal, The messengers’ cbirthday. Some hold this function in mosques , and some at homes while others in designated places that are prepared for this purpose. Large numbers attend such celebration, copying the christians in their bidah of celebrating christmas. Besides the fact, it is an innovation resembling the christians, such celebration also include some polytheistic practices and objectionable things such as reciting litanies that include excessive praising of the messenger of Allaah . They also include supplicating the Prophet to the exclusion of Allaah, and seeking help and relief from him. The prophet forbade revering him excessively saying:

“Do not adulate me as the christians adulated the son of maryam, I am only a human, therefore, c all me the slave of Allaah and His Messenger (Bukhari and muslim)

Those who celebrate the birthday of the Prophet probably believe that the prophet salalahu alayhi wa salam attends their functions. Among the objectionable things that take place in such celebrations is reciting litanies in congregations accompanied by drum beating, and the rest of the innovated sufi litanies. Such celebrations allow mixing of men with women, which is a cause of fitnah and leads to committing fornication. Even if such functions are free from these objectionable things, and were restricted to gatherings, eating and expressing joy as they claim, it is still a bidah which is innovated, and according to the hadith:

Every innovated practice is bidah, and every bidah is a means of deviations.

It can also be conductive to objectionable things, which take place in other functions.

We said that this celebration is bidah because it has no base in the book nor the sunnah, nor in the practice of the pious predecessors and the favored generations. Such celebrations evolved, subsequent to the fourth century of Hijrah. It was innovated and devised by the shiite Fatimid. Imam abu hafs taj ad din al fakihani, may allaah grant him his mercy said: “To proceed, it has been repeatedly asked by blessed group of people inquiring about the legitimacy of the functions that some people hold in the month of Rabi al-awwal which they call al mawlid (milad), whether it has a base in the deen. They request a clear answer to their query in general and clarification in particular. I said, while asking Allaah to grant me success: “I hav eno knowledge of a base for such functions, neither in the book nor in the sunnah, nor any of the scholars who adhere to the traditions of the predecessors, who are the examples for the ummah to follow in matters of deen, was reported to have celebrated to it. Rather, it is a bidah innovated by the forgers, and a desire through which greedy people became rich. (Risalat al-Mawrid Fi amal al mawlid)

Shaykh ul islam ibn taymiyyah rahimullah, said : Similar to this is what some people do, they celebrate the birthday of the prophet either to resemble the christians celebration of the birthday of Jesus, whom Allaah saved from evil, or out of their love and adulation to the prophet salalahu alayhi wa salam. Although people are at variance with regard to the actual date of the Prophet’s salalaahu alayhi wa salam birthday. Such functions were not held by the pious predecessors. Were such functions to be a good thing, the pious predecessors, may Allaah be pleased with them, would have been more deserving than us in holding it. They loved and revered the prophet salalahu alayhi wa salam more than we love and revere him, and they were keener than ourselves in seeking goodness. His true love and reverence can be materialized in following and obeying him, and adhereing to his commands, and revivinghis sunnah internally and externally. It can also be materiialized by propagating the message with which he was sent, and struggling by heart, hand and tongue for that purpose. This is the way of the pious predecessors and the muhajireen and ansar, and those who followed them with piety.”[/color] (Iqtida as-sirat 2/165. This qoutation has been abridged by the author)[/color]

Books and epistles in the past and present were written to denounce and refute this bidah, besides it being a bidah and resembling the christians, it is also conductive to holding their birthday celebrations, such as the birthday of the awliya, shaykh and leaders, and would open many gates of evil. (We should bear in mind too that celebrating the birthday of the family members is also condemned bidah)

Take Refuge with Allaah

Filed under: Uncategorized — wayofthesalaf @ 12:06 am
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Taken from ‘Dont be Sad’ by ‘Aaidh ibn Abdullah al-Qarni

Seek refuge with Allah

Allah: The Great and Glorious name. Going back to the root of the word, we learn a special meaning. Some say that the name comes from the root A-La-Ha. This means the one whom the hearts of people love, find peace in, are happy with, turn to, and accept as their God. Also, it is impossible for the heart to find peace or comfort with other than Him. For this reason, Faatimah radiallahu anha taught her daughter the supplication of the one who is in distress:

“Allah,Allah, My Lord, I do not associate any partners with Him.”

“Say: ‘Allah[sent it down]’. Then leave them to play in their vain discussions.” (6:91)

“And He is the Irresistible, above His slaves…” (6:18)

“Allah is Very Gracious and Kind to His Slaves.” (42:19)

“They made not a just estimate of Allah such as is due to Him. And on the day of Ressurection the whole of the earth will be grasped by His Hand and the heavens will be rolled up in His Right Hand. Glorified be He, and High is He above all that they associate as partners with Him!” (39:67)

“And [remember[ the Day when We shall roll up the heavens like a scroll rolled up for books…” (21:104)

“Verily! Allah grasps the heavens and the earth lest they should move away from their places.”(35:41)

October 8, 2008

Allaah’s Attribute of Hands clarified

Filed under: Aqidah,Tawhid — wayofthesalaf @ 11:58 pm
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Taken crom ‘A Chapter on The Dispraise of Al-Hawwaa (Desire) (From the work of Dr. Salih as salih rahimahullah)

Please spread this

1. Ahlu Sunnah affirm the Sifaat as they came in the text (s).

2. Ahlu Sunnah affirm that the meaning of the Sifaat is obvious and naturlaly fits the context of the text (s). The meaning varies in accordance witht he context. [527]

3. They affirm that nothing is like unto Allaah’s Thaat, His Names, Attributes, and His Actions.

In the Qur’aan, the Hand, one of Allaah’s Attributes is used in the following Aayah:

“Verily, those who give Bai’ah (plledge) to you (O muhammad ) they are giving Ba’iah to Allaah. The Hand of Allaah is over their hands.” [Qur’aan, Soorat al-Fath, 48:10]

The Hand of Allaah is affirmed, nothing is like Him in His Hand.

The obviously-understood meaning is that the Prophet directly took their pledge, and not Allaah. But since the Prophet is a Messenger of Allaah who relates His Message, therefore, giving pledge to him, is a pledge for the One Who Sent Him, i.e. Allaah. Allaah says in a simlar meaning:

“He who obeys the Messenger (Muhammad ), has indeed obeyed Allaah.” [Qur’aan, Soorat An-Nisaa’,4:80]

Secondly, the Hand of Allaah is true and real in the manner that suits His Majesty and it is above them, because it is an attribute of Allaah Who is High above His creation, ascended His ‘Arsh. The apparent meaning holds. It does not necessitate that Allaah’s Hand is directly touching their hands. Can’t yous ee that the obvious meaning in the saying, “the sky is over us” does not mean that it necessarily touches us? To Allaah belongs the Most Exalted example.

Then we read in the Qur’aan that:

“The jews say: “Allaah’s Hand is tied up (i.e. He does not give and spend of His Bounty). Be their hands tied up and be accursed of what they uttered. Nay, both His Hands are widely outstretched. He spends of [His Bounty] as He wills.” [Qur’aan, Soorat Al-Maa’idah,5:64]

The obviously-understood meaning in thier saying “Allaah’s Hand is tied up” is explained int he context of the Aayah when He says: “He spends of [His Bounty] as He wills.” “He proves liberality for His Self, that is, His both Hands are open to grant and to be generous.” [528]

The Hands are affiremd and the Thaahir (obvious) meaning is evident.

Also we read in the Aayah:

“[Allaah] said [what means]: “O Iblees! What prevents you from prostrating yourself before that which I have created with Both My Hands.”[Qur’aan,Soorat Saad,38:75]

It is impossible that “Both My Hands” means “with My Power,” because the cursed Iblees was also created by Allaah’s Power, nor does it refer to His Ni’mah (Favour), because of the Tashdeed[529] in Yaday. The grammatical form asserts two real Hands. It is not fit to use in t he sense of power or favor, because it is not right to say that Allaah created Adam (alayhi salam) with his two powers, or two favours! He, Allaah, created Adam (alayhi salam) with both His Hands. The command, the Will, and the Hands of Allaah all were combined in the creation of Adam (alayhi salam) and in the manner that suits His Majesty.

“Do not they see that We have created for them of what our Hands have created, the cattle so that they are their owners.” [Qur’aan, Soorat Yaaseen,36:71]

What is the apparent meaning of the Aayah? Does it mean that Allaah has created the cattle by His Hands as He has done in the creation of Adam(alayhi salam)? Or that He reffered the “creation” to His Hands meaning Himself?

The first is not the obvious meaning because the Arabic tongue does not denote it:

“And whatever of misfortune befalls you, it is because of what your hands have earned.” [Qur’aan, Soorat Ash-Shura,42:30]

Does the meaning refer to the earning of the hands or the earning of man? It certainly includes what is done by other than the hands. Compare it, however, with:

“Then woe to those who write the Book with their own hands(bi yadeeheem), and then say: “This is from Allaah,” to purchase with it a little price.” [Qur’aan, Soorat Al-Baqarah,2:79]

This is a clear reference to the direct handling of things. Had the meaning been that Allaah has created the cattle by His Hands as in the case of Adam alayhisalam, the text would have been: “We have created by Our Hands, the cattle…! Allah does not intend confusion for His slaves. All Praise is due to Him.


[527] See Al-Qawaa’id Al-Muthlaa by Shaykh Muhammad Bin Saalih Al-‘Uthaymeen, p.54.

[528] Sharh Al-Waasitiyyah, by Muhammad Khaleel Harraas, English translation, p.79.

[529] Tashdeed: The characterizing of a letter by a lengthened equivalent in grammatical analysis and in prosody to doubling, denoted in writing by the sign called Shaddah, i.e. by the sign over that letter. See Lane’s Lexicon,V.2, p.1518.

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